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I would like in express my sincere gratitude to the many 
people who made this exhibition and catalogue possible. 
Thanks to Julie Mellby, my colleague and Curator of 
Works on Paper, who had the idea for this exhibition and 
who worked tirelessly on the project. My heartfelt thanks 
to Roger M. Berkowitz, Director of the Toledo Museum 
of Art, who generously supported our idea and who has 
been a leader, mentor, and friend for many years. 

Many people gave freely of their time and expertise to 
help us develop this project. I would like to thank Terence 
Mclnerney, Subash Kapoor, and Francesca Galloway for their 
scholarly opinions and guidance on many matters. John 
Seyller deserves special mention for all his help on this 
endeavor and particularly for his attribution to the artist 
Manohar of our newest acquisition. I would also like to give 
thanks to the members of the Toledo Hindu and Islamic 
communities, who have been generous in helping us with 
the programming for the exhibition. 

Enormous thanks go to the members of the Museum staff who 
make every exhibition and catalogue we take on a priority and 
a success. Finally to my editors, Sandra E. Knudsen and 
Richard H. Putney, who provided support and valuable 
assistance to me in so many ways, I cannot thank them 
enough. I am also grateful to The Andrew W. Mellon Founda- 
tion, which made the publication of this catalogue possible. 

I dedicate this work to my family, supportive friends, and to 
my dear husband who is my inspiration. CM. P. 

Note on spelling: Persian is often the language of the text of Indian 
miniatures, with some use of Arabic and of Indian languages. No single 
transliteration system works for this diversity of traditions, and it was 
decided not to use scholarly diacritical marks. Proper names have been 
spelled in their most familiar form. 



Published in conjunction with the exhibition Princely Pursuits: 
Indian Miniature Painting, August 22-November 30, 2003. 

This book was published with the assistance of 
The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. 

FIRST EDITION 

© 2003 The Toledo Museum of Art 

All Rights Reserved. 

Except for legitimate excerpts customary in review of 
scholarly publications, no part of this book may be 
reproduced by any means without the express written 
permission of the publisher. 

ISBN 0-935 172-22-X 

Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved under 
International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. 

Toledo Museum of Art 

2445 Monroe Street 

P.O. Box 1013 

Toledo, Ohio 43697-1013 

Telephone 419-255-8000 

Fax 419-255-5638 

Internet www.toledomuseum.org 

Coordinator of Publications: Sandra E. Knudsen 
Designer: Rochelle R. Slosser Smith 
Composition: Adobe Garamond and Aladdin 
Printer: Homewood Press, Toledo 

Cover: Detail, see pp. 10-1 1 . 
Title Page: Detail, sec pp. 8-9. 



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7 



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Indian Miniature Painting 




Carolyn M. Putney 
Toledo Museum or Art 



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Ihc [bledo Museum of Art holds a distinguished 
collection of Asian art from China, Korea, Japan, India, 
Southeast Asia, and the Near and Middle East, spanning 
more than fifteen hundred years. The Museums manu- 
script collection contains original work on papyrus, 
parchment (or animal skin), and paper dating from the 
second century C.E. to the present. Some works bridge 
these areas of collecting, requiring the cooperative efforts 
of two curators to research, exhibit, and care for them. 
Foremost among these is a small group of manuscript 
leaves from Central Asia filled with brilliantly colored 
paintings, which are generically called Indian miniature 
paintings. It is with both pleasure and pride that — for the 
first time in a generation — these paintings are once again 
on view in the exhibition Princely Pursuits. 

This form of painting was not originally meant for public 
viewing. The ruling class commissioned these works for their 
own pleasure. Happily today, however, through the scholar- 
ship of Carolyn M. Putney and Julie Mellby, we can all 
experience the princely pleasure of viewing and enjoying 
these beautiful manuscript pages. To complement our Indian 
miniatures and place them in a context, we are also exhibit- 
ing a number of nineteenth-century photographs by Samuel 
Bourne. Bourne left Great Britain in the middle of the 
nineteenth century, bound for India. His modest plans to 
photograph exotic landscapes and sell the images to the 
British public soon blossomed into one of the largest and 
most successful photographic studios of his day. Bourne & 
Shepherd still operates in Calcutta, and the photographs 
made by Bourne himself remain some of the most beautiful 
images of India ever created. 

Roger M. Berkowitz 
Director 



Manuscripts are unique books written and produced by 
hand. The pictures that illustrate and accompany the texts 
in a manuscript are called miniatures, not only because 
they are small but also because the Latin word miniare 
(meaning to color with red lead) has been used since the 
Middle Ages to describe these illustrations. Graceful 
calligraphy is often included either outside the frame or on 
a facing page. Each manuscript required a tremendous 
amount of labor, and it was not uncommon for an artist to 
work on a single painting for more than a year. 

The majority of manuscript leaves in this exhibition came 
to the Museum thanks to our second director, George W. 
Stevens. In 1926, only a matter of months before his death, 
Stevens acquired four Indian paintings from the London 
book and manuscript dealer, Maggs Brothers (still in 
business today). Each had become detached from its 
manuscript and was sold as a single page. After twenty years 
of collecting, Stevens's connoisseurship was well known 
within the small world of bibliophiles. When Stevens died in 
1926, Maggs Brothers honored his memory with a donation 
of two superb additional leaves of Indian paintings. 

In 2002, a decision was made to add to this collection for 
the first time in seventy-five years. Carolyn Putney, Associate 
Curator of Asian Art, and I joined forces to search for 
something unique, significant, and eye-catching to match 
the masterpieces already in the collection. We succeeded in 
acquiring a seventeenth-century painting attributed to the 
Rajasthani painter Manohar that depicts scenes from the 
childhood of the Hindu god, Krishna. Of course, there 
needed to be an exhibition, and Princely Pursuits was born. 

Julie Mellby 

Curator of Works on Paper 



^/ Mt-V4>£»V4Cfl4>M 



The exhibition Princely Pursuits is concerned with works of 
art that participate in the long, glorious, and somewhat 
uncertain history or painting in the Indian subcontinent. 
This introduction traces the outlines of that history, focusing 
on the most significant and relevant episodes. 

It is certain that various forms of painting already existed 
in India during the third millennium B.C. I-., most notably 
painting on pottery and works of sculpture. Sadly, the 
evidence survives only in fragments. This is due to several 
factors: the artists' use of perishable materials such as palm 
leaves and wood, the extremes of the Indian climate, and 
social conflict. 

The earliest significant paintings that survive date to the 
fifth century CJL They are on the interiors of man-made 
caves at Ajanta, a Buddhist monastic center. Sponsored by 
wealthy local rulers called the Vakataka, the caves were cut 
into the side of a dramatic, horseshoe-shaped cliff (figure 1). 
The complex included elaborate temple caves, called 
chaityas, and large residential caves for the monks, called 
viharas. The interiors of all the rock-cut structures were 
painted from top to bottom with sophisticated paintings 
that depict the many reincarnations of Buddha, all done in 
the contemporary style of the feudal princes who commis- 
sioned them (figure 2). 

The Ajanta painters executed their works, precious remnants 
of a distant age, in a fresco secco technique (i.e., dry fresco). 
Workmen covered the rock-cut walls with layers of mud 
topped with white lime plaster. Once a wall was dry, artists 
drew outlines of the composition on it and then applied 
colors derived from local minerals, as well as a striking blue 
pigment derived from lapis lazuli, brought from Afghani- 
stan. The animated scenes of the many previous lives of the 



Buddha were painted by workshops of artists who were 
anonymous and had little social status. By the year 500, 
the caves were apparently abandoned (as unfinished work 
at the site attests) and not rediscovered until the nineteenth 
century by a British soldier hunting for tigers. 

Fortunately, the abandonment of Ajanta preserved it for 
posterity. In the centuries that followed, it is certain that 
many other sites received monumental painted decoration, 
including Buddhist, Jain, and Hindu temples. Like the early 
painting done before Ajanta, however, only fragments have 
survived the ravages of time. It is certain, however, that by 
the tenth century Indian artisans had begun to produce 
illustrated religious texts. These took the form of elongated 
horizontal pages of palm leaf embellished with text and 
simple illustrations; sewn together, the pages were bound 
between painted strips of wood (figure 3). 

Trade with the Islamic world and the establishment of an 
Islamic empire in northern India by Turkish sultans — with 
Delhi as its capital — further stimulated the development of 
Indian manuscript painting. Indeed, the rulers of the Delhi 
Sultanate (1206—1526) brought with them many illustrated 
texts for their libraries. They also launched the production 
of new books by native Indian artists, as well as painters 
imported from Persia and Turkey. Islamic book forms, new 
to India, used pages made of paper. Featuring hinged leather 
covers, their broad, vertically formatted surfaces provided 
ample space for painted illustrations. 

Another Islamic power, the Mughals, overthrew the Delhi 
Sultanate and established a new dynasty (1526-1757), writing 
another chapter in the history of Indian painting. The 
Mughals swept into India from Central Asia under the 
leadership of Babur, who ruled his new domain from 1526 




Figure I. General view. Ajanta caves. India, about *S00. Photo: author, 1989. 




Figure 2. The "Beautiful Bodhisattva" fresco. Cave 1 , Ajanta. India, 
about 500. Photo: author, 1989. 



to 1530. Fierce warriors, Babur and his followers brought 
with them a love or culture. Their retinue included artists, 
musicians, and even chefs. An early setback for the dynasty 
had a beneficial effect on Indian painting. When the Mughal 
Emperor Humayun (r. 1530-1556) was temporarily driven 
from power, he sought exile at the court of the Persian Shah, 
where he became enthralled with the art of miniature 
painting. When Humayun retook his Indian territories in 
1 555, he returned with two of the finest court artists of Persia, 
Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad. Dying only a year after his 
return, Humayun was succeeded by his son Akbar, the greatest 
emperor of the dynasty (r. 1556—1605). A cosmopolitan 
leader, Akbar was interested in and tolerated all world 
religions, while his cultural sophistication was demonstrated 
by a huge library of more than 24,000 volumes that covered 
an incredible variety of subjects. Akbar's most significant 
contribution to the visual arts was the creation of a court 
school of painting, where about a hundred artists, mostly 
Hindu, trained and worked under the guidance of the two 
Persian masters brought to India by Humayun. 



The best painters and calligraphers were celebrities, highly 
sought after and lavishly supported by the princes and rulers 
of the period. These artists created many series of narrative 
paintings with numerous episodes. Works produced for 
Akbar and for later Mughal emperors are quite naturalistic 
and depict a wide variety of subjects, ranging from portraits 
of rulers and scenes of court life to stories drawn from 
history, poetry, natural history, and even the Hindu epics 
of the Mahabharata. 

To create a miniature, artisans carefully burnished a piece of 
paper, rubbing it until it was smooth and glossy. On this an 
artist executed a preliminary drawing in red ink. He then 
made corrections in black ink and covered the entire sheet 
with a very thin coat of white pigment. Using the faint 
underdrawing as a guide, he used gouache paints to color 
the miniature. Gold was applied where necessary, the entire 
miniature was burnished again, and, finally, the text was 
inscribed. Such paintings were bound into books in which 
text and illustration were of equal importance. Artists rarely 
signed their work, but occasionally an artists name was 
added to a miniature by another painter, the patron, or a 
later collector. 




l ; i(;ure V Manuscript ot Isiukllust scripture Sn l.mk.i, jlsoul 1800 I'.iltn le.it enclosed in wood 
covers, Z 7, x 16 7 in. (53.9 x 41') mm). Museum Purchase. I".' I S I 



Akbar's son and successor, Jahangir (r. 1605-1627), was also 
a great connoisseur or painting and was said to be able to 
recognize the work of any of the court artists. He collected 
miniatures by both Mughal and Hindu artists and had them 
assembled into albums and embellished with rich painted 
margins. The dynasty's serious interest in painting began to 
decline in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan (r. 1627- 
1658), however, who was more interested in collecting rare 
gems and overseeing architectural projects like the Taj Mahal. 

In contrast to the Mughal interest in books, Hindus had for 
centuries relied on the oral transmission of religious texts 
that emphasized gods, sacred symbols, and the cosmic cycles 
of time. Such themes, along with talcs of love and the 
adventures of folk heroes, were the most popular subjects 
tor painters working in the courts of local Hindu rulers 
subservient to the Mughal emperors. Unlike the naturalistic 
traditions of the Mughal courts, Hindu artists did not base 
their work on realistic models but on stylized formulas that 
had been passed down from artist to artist. These paintings 
were originally not bound as pages in books, but often kept 
by collectors in loose stacks. As the viewers were familiar 
with the subject matter's oral traditions, inscribed texts 
generally were not of great importance; indeed, even when 



a work had an identifying inscription, it was often written 
on the back of the image. 

During the seventeenth century, the distinct styles of the 
Mughal and Hindu schools began to merge as artists went 
where political fortunes led them. They adapted to the 
requirements of their patron, whatever their religious or 
political affiliation. Sometimes assistant artists left the 
Mughal court school and went to work for either Hindu or 
Muslim patrons. This helped create provincial schools of 
painting that imitated but never reached the quality of the 
emperor's atelier. 

Passing on compositions, techniques, styles, and subject 
matter, artists continued to produce high quality miniatures 
from the late Mughal period until well into the nineteenth 
century. With the rising domination of India by the British, 
the end of royal patronage, and the birth of industrialization, 
however, Indian miniature painting largely came to an end. 
Although copies of traditional motifs are still being made 
today, innovation in Indian pictorial art is largely confined 
to photography and modernist painting. 



Sadik(Sadiq) (active 1500s) 



Mughal 



Drona Combats Virata and 
Asvatthama Engages Sikandin 
on the Seventh Day of Battle 



From a Razmnama manuscript, 1598-99 
Watercolor on paper, H (image) 7 n /i6 x 4 ] /s in. 
(195 x 105 mm) 

Gift of Maggs Bros. (London) in honor of 
George W. Stevens, 1927.7 



^^ ne of more than 125 paintings created 
/ t between 1598 and 1599, this 

^^ ^ manuscript leaf was part of a copy 
of a presentation book commissioned by the 
Mughal Emperor Akbar. The Razmnama is the 
Persian translation of the great Sanskrit epic, the 
Mahabharata, that Akbar ordered to be made, along 
with other great Indian literature, in 1582 but not 
completed until 1586. The Mahabharata is the 
longest epic in history (over three times longer than 
the Bible) and describes events that took place in 
ancient India around 5000 B.C.E. This epic is consid- 
ered to be a major religious, historical, and literary 
work of the Hindu faith. The sage Vyasa, the 
supposed author of the Mahabharata, said it was a 
treatise on life itself. The work is divided into 



eighteen books and mainly relates the story of an 
immense eighteen-day war between two rival groups, 
the Pandavas and the Kauravas, for the kingdom of 
Kuruksetra in northern India. 

In this painting by the court artist Sadik from the 
Razmnama, we see the great leader and teacher Drona 
charging his chariot toward Virata, a king on the side 
of the Pandavas. Asvatthama, son of Drona, attacks 
Sikandin with his bow drawn. Sikandin, a young 
prince, was actually a woman who temporarily and 
magically received manhood in order to fight for the 
Pandavas against the Kauravas. This transformation 
eventually led to the downfall of one of the Kauravas' 
greatest warriors, Bhisma, who would not wage war 
against a female (even a transformed one!). 



Paras (Parasa) (active 1500s) 
Mughal 



Sahadeva Brings Raja Yudhisthira 
News of Victory 



From a Razmnama manuscript, 1598-99 
Watercolor on paper, H (image) 7 /« x 4 Vk, in. 
(200 x 106 mm) 
Museum Purchase, 1926.17 




udhisthira, king of the Pandavas, sits on 
his throne in an open palace pavilion, 
surrounded by attendants. He is receiving 
f£at news of victory from Sahadeva, his kinsman, 
over their opposing cousins the Kauravas on day seven 
of the battle. The fortunes of war shift back and forth 
between the two groups with huge numbers of 
casualties, but the Pandavas eventually win the 
great conflict. 

Scholars have determined that these two pages of 
the Razmnama belong to a dispersed group of 125 



paintings, most of which are held in the British 
Library, London. The set is thought to have been 
created for a prince or other aristocrat in the court 
of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, but not for the ruler 
himself, who commissioned an imperial album that 
was finished in 1586. While both artists of the 
Toledo pages are known to have worked for Akbar, 
the less finished quality of this 1598 version of the 
Razmnama, the relatively simple compositions, and 
the thinness of paint suggest that they were not 
created for state use. 




\tylp % 'l,tffy? l ' , '' J ?#'**&** 



Attributed to Manohar (active 1640-1660) 
Mewar School 

Scenes from the Childhood 
of Krishna 



From a Sur Sagar manuscript, 1655-60 
Pigment on paper, H (image) 10 V4 x 8 'Vi6 in. 
(273 x218 mm) 
Mrs. George W. Stevens Fund, 2002.33 



^^^ m his painting was done for the Mewar Hindu 
r M court, the most powerful of the Rajput 
^ y states. The region was extremely difficult 
for the Mughals to conquer, and in painting a more 
native Indian style persisted after the conquest in 
1 568. The Mewar School is identifiable by the flat 
forms and deep saturated color employed by the 
court artists. 

The Sur Sagar, a long lyrical poem, whose title 
translated means "Ocean of Melody," is a work 
written in the sixteenth century by the blind poet 
Sur Das (1478-1581). One of the marvels of Indian 
literature, the poet portrays in meticulous and 
colorful detail the childhood and coming of age of 
the Hindu god Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. 
Krishna's father, Vasudeva, in order to save the infant 
from a tyrant, gave up his son to a couple named 
Nanda and Yashoda, who were cattle herders. The 
stories of the boyhood of Krishna began to be told 
around the first century C.E. and were continually 
modified until the sixteenth-century Sur Sagar. 
Krishna's cutting his first tooth, uttering his first 



words, and taking his first steps are all occasions for 
the poetic songs of the Sur Sagar. These songs are still 
sung today in the homes of Indian mothers who see 
the child Krishna in their own children. 

In this manuscript, the top register of the painting 
is divided into two scenes. On the left, Yashoda is 
carrying a jug of milk and has come into Krishna's 
room to awaken him. On the right, Krishna is leading 
Nanda, his foster father into a kitchen pavilion to 
watch Yashoda churning butter. Krishna had a huge 
appetite for butter and frustrated every effort of his 
foster mother to restrain him, but whenever she 
reached the point of punishment, she always broke 
down in loving forgiveness. 

As Krishna grew older, the stories begin to focus on 
his love of milkmaids (gopis). In the lower register, 
Krishna takes center stage playing his flute and 
attracting not only the milkmaids but also everyone 
in the forest including animals and fish! Therefore, 
two forms of love were offered as patterns of devotion 
to Krishna: maternal love and sexual attraction. 



10 



Artist Unknown 
Mughal 



Portrait ofRuruhig Bahadur Jir 
with a Lute Player 



Early eighteenth century 

Watercolor on paper, H (image) 7 Vs x 4 5 /s in. 

(180 x 117 mm) 

Museum Purchase, 1926.18 



/•/"^ rince Ruruhig Bahadur Jir is portrayed 
g I J with a court musician, who is entertaining 
i I him with lute music. The bearded prince, 

ck"Ssed in a deep blue robe and resting against a red 
silk bolster, is seated on a tranquil palace terrace. The 
elegant pavilion behind the prince is typical of the 
type of luxurious inlaid marble architecture made 
famous by the prince's ancestor, Shah Jahan, who 
commissioned the Taj Mahal. The delicate red flowers 
and green leaves that pattern the surfaces of the walls 
were made from semiprecious stones and set into 
white marble. A silk awning, with similar designs, is 
rolled up above the prince's head. Beyond the pavilion 
is a garden with cypress trees back-lit by a pink sunset 
with thunderclouds threatening the serene scene. 



In the Mughal courts, artists were commissioned to 
create such portraits to record the history of a family 
and its dynastic rule. Kept in albums, the paintings 
were housed in royal libraries. The rather stiff formal- 
ity of this example is typical of the paintings produced 
for the Mughal court of the early eighteenth century, 
and it may have been produced during the short reign 
of Bahadur Shah (r. 1707-1712). The decline of 
painting after the stern rule of Aurangzeb (r. 1658- 
1707), who had banned the creation of images as well 
as music, did not revive until the third decade of the 
eighteenth century. Even then, the great school of 
Mughal naturalism never really recovered its former 
glory. The floral margin was added in the nineteenth 
century. 



12 




JR «-^^ 







Artist Unknown 
Deccan School 



Hermit Beside a Stream 



Early eighteenth century 

Watercolor on paper, H (image) 7 l U x 4 3 A in. 

(183x121 mm) 

Museum Purchase, 1926.16 



y^2 enturies-old artistic traditions popular in 
/ the courts of the Hindu sultans of the 

^ Deccan, the wide plateau of central India, 

are reflected in this miniature. The artist worked in 
the Deccan shortly after its conquest by the Muslim 
Mughals in the late seventeenth century. The latter 
brought with them a new court style that stressed 
realism and worldliness. This work's style and subject 
matter, however, are anchored in the region's vener- 
able tradition of Hindu painting, which centered on 
the depiction of epic love, emotion or heroism, 
religious tales, or, as here, mysticism and spirituality. 

The image depicts an elderly hermit whose disciple 
fans him with a flywhisk. A contemporary viewer 
would recognize that the old man, who sits in 
meditation on a tiger skin in front of a cave, is a 
devout Hindu ascetic and that he is a follower of the 



god Shiva, one of the three major deities of Hindu- 
ism. He has chosen a site beneath a tree and close to 
a stream. Such a natural setting — far from the village 
on the horizon — was especially auspicious for experi- 
encing the presence of the god. Such themes had been 
passed down orally, and then in written form, for 
countless generations. Even the ascetic's hair and gray 
skin indicate his devotion to the deity. Venerable 
Hindu texts such as the Puranas describe Shiva as a 
god who sometimes goes naked, sits by a fire, smears 
himself with ashes, and wears matted, unkempt hair. 
The ascetic and his disciple gather round a fire and 
reverently mimic the god's appearance. Even the 
artist's choice of colors, particularly the warm, golden 
oranges and pastel purples, reflects his knowledge of 
traditional Deccan painting. 



14 






-Mi 




Artist Unknown 
Rajasthani School 

Three Ladies on a Terrace 



Late eighteenth century 

Watercolor on paper, H (image) 8 3 /s x 5 7s in. 

(212 x 129 mm) 

Museum Purchase, 1926.19 



n^\ ajasthan's princely courts are located 
/V^ in northwest India. They were some of the 
C^ ^L earliest kingdoms to be brought into the 
Mughal Empire as feudal states, with the Hindu rajas 
becoming subjects of the emperor. Feudal obligations 
led to the adoption of Mughal culture in Rajasthan 
long before the rest of India. 

When the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb forcibly took 
over his father's empire in 1658, he discarded the 
Mughals' tolerance for many religions and adhered 
to a strict Muslim doctrine. Music and the depiction 
of living things were forbidden, and the arts suffered 
greatly. Many artists fled the imperial court school 
and went to work for the regional courts of Rajasthan 
and the Deccan. These trained artists adapted the 
Mughal style to the artistic needs of their new 
Hindu patrons. 



This manuscript scene derives from Mughal paintings 
of harems and shows three ladies of the court on a 
blazing white marble terrace. The many duties of 
women in Indian society at this time included the 
procreation of children and the daily care of men. 
Giving birth to heirs was considered so important a 
female role that if a wife failed to produce children, 
the husband was allowed by Indian law to take a 
second or third wife in order to continue his family 
line. Royal harems, consisting of many wives, 
flourished under Mughal rule, and in this image we 
see two court ladies attending a baby prince while 
the third is about to nurse him. This painting was 
influenced by the Muhammad Shah style (r. 1719— 
1748), which later influenced many Rajasthani 
painters and can be recognized by the predominant 
use of the colors white, green, and gold. 



16 



Artist Unknown 
Lucknow School 



A Princess and her Cat 



S^^ eated on an Indo-Victorian chair, a 
^^^^7 princess wears a sumptuous orange 
z^^^^^^S garment over a green jama, elaborate 
I gold jewelry, and a plume in her hair. She seems 
distracted as she stares off into space while calmly 
petting an animal variously identified as a cat or a 
plump ferret! 

In the nineteenth century, the empire-building 
British, under Queen Victoria, took over what had 
been a large part of the former Mughal territory. 
British officers and government officials also em- 
ployed the artists who had been trained in Indian 



About 1850 

Watercolor on paper, H (image) 10 7 /s x 9 'A in. 

(276 x 235 mm) 

Gift of Maggs Bros. (London) in honor of 

George W. Stevens, 1927.6 



court traditions. There had always been an interest by 
the cosmopolitan Mughal courts in European paint- 
ings. Sultan Alam of Oudh, who reigned over the 
capital of Lucknow in the mid-nineteenth century, 
favored western painting. This work is believed to 
have been created for him and is a good example of 
the blend of Indian and British styles. 

But Indian court painting by this time was on the 
decline. Except for the new medium of photogra- 
phy — and painters' attempts to imitate it — there were 
no innovations in the pictorial arts. The long tradition 
for miniature painting slowly came to a standstill. 



«/\vt>ts cj- H< ^/Wialyi £vnr>evOT5 irwrHjer J\£<?k£\\t21 



Babur 

Humayun 

Akbar 

Jahangir 

Shah Jahan 
Aurangzeb 
Bahadur Shah I 
Jahandir Shah 
Farrukhsiyar 
Muhammad Shah 
Ahmad Shah 
Alamgir II 
Shah Alam II 
Akbar Shah II 
Bahadur Shah II 



1525-1530 

1530-1556 

1556-1605 

1605-1627 

1627-1658 (deposed) 1666 (died) 

1658-1707 

1707-1712 

1712-1713 

1713-1719 

1720-1748 

1748-1754 

1754-1759 

1759-1806 

1806-1837 

1837-1857 (deposed) 1862 (died) 



Beach, Milo C. Early Mughal Painting. Cambridge, Mass.: 
Published for the Asia Society by Harvard University Press, 1987. 

Beach, Milo C. Mughal and Rajput Painting. Cambridge 
[England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 

Blurton, T. Richard. Hindu Art. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard 
University Press, 1993. 

Craven, Roy C. Indian Art: A Concise History. Rev. ed., London, 
New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997. 

Dehejia, Vidya. Indian Art. London: Phaidon Press, 1997. 

Guy, John, and Deborah Swallow, eds. Arts of India 1550—1900. 
London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1990. 

Kossak, Steven. Indian Court Painting: l6 h —19 h Century. New 
York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Harry N. Abrams, 1997. 

Mason, Darielle. Intimate Worlds: Indian Paintings from the Alvin 
O. Bellak Collection. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum 
of Art; Chicago; distributed by Art Media Resources, 2001. 

Mitter, Partha. Indian Art. Oxford; New York: Oxford University 
Press, 2001. 

Seyller, John. "Model and Copy: The Illustration of Three 
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20 




Arabian Sea 



Bay of Bengal 



The Mughal Empire at Its Greatest Extent 
mid 17th century